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Cumbrian Fell Ponies - the Centenary of the Fell Pony Society 2022

Updated: Jun 30, 2022

Fell pony photographed in the Ullswater valley
Fell pony photographed in the Ullswater valley

This year is the centenary of the Fell Pony Society, whose patron is Her Majesty the Queen. This year is also the Queen’s platinum Jubilee. Her 96th birthday photograph was Her Majesty with two of her Fell ponies.

I have been invited to take part in the "Celebrating Fell Ponies' Centenary exhibition at The Old Courthouse, Shap in the summer of 2022.

'Celebrating Fell Ponies' exhibition poster, The Old Courthouse, Shap, summer 2022
'Celebrating Fell Ponies' exhibition poster

As you walk the Ullswater Way, you may be lucky enough to come across some of Cumbria’s fell ponies. Once widely used as working ponies, taking wool to market, pulling ploughs and working in the mines but there are now only about 6500 left worldwide and they are classified as ‘at risk’ by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust. You may spot them high up on the fells above Ullswater where they are being used for conservation grazing because they eat and trample in very different ways from sheep.

Fell pony on Heughscar above Ullswater
Fell pony on Heughscar above Ullswater

The ancestor of the Cumbrian Fell pony (and the Dales pony) is the now-extinct Galloway. They originated on the England/Scotland border before the Romans arrived.

The Vikings used Fell ponies to plough, pull sledges, as pack animals and to ride. The working animals were kept in the villages and the breeding stock lived up on the fells.

From the 11th Century, fell ponies were used to carry fleeces, woollen goods, cheese, meat preserves and metal ores long distances. By the 13th Century this practice had evolved into pack trains, with the front pony wearing bells so that the others could follow it in poor weather. In the winter of 1492-3, when fine wool was one of Britains largest exports, 11 Kendal traders made 14 journeys to Southampton carrying cloth. These pack pony trains continued into the 20th Century.

Photograph of a tapestry at the Quaker Tapestry Museum showing a pack pony train carrying wool.
Fell pony pack train carrying wool, Quaker Tapestry Museum

Fell Ponies were used as pit ponies where seams were deep enough. They were also used above ground in collieries for moving machinery. They transported copper, iron and lead ores from mines to smelting work in the north west and they carried iron and lead long distances across the north of England to Newcastle and returned with coal.

The ponies also carried dairy products from the farms above the pits into towns. Even after the arrival canals and railways pack ponies remained essential for reaching remote communities. They were used to deliver mail to rural areas and are still used for carrying grouse panniers and stags down from moors.

Today, Fell Ponies are being used again as driving ponies, most notably by the late Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The predominance of dark coloured genes means that it is relatively easy to find a matching pair. They have a great deal of stamina and are very sure footed, even on rough or marshy ground. Most recently, they have started to be used to carry footpath repair equipment to remote areas of the Lake District. Fix the Fells, a charity whose rangers and volunteers maintain the Lake District trails, have used them to carry fleeces to a high trail in the Langdales. Here the wool will be placed on a boggy area before trail materials are laid on top so the trail will float on the bog rather than sinking in to it. See a video about the project here:

Fell pony grazing on Heughscar with Ullswater and the Lake District fells in the background
Fell pony grazing on Heughscar above Ullswater

Fell ponies are most often a very dark brown or black with only very small amounts of white, such as a star on their forehead. However, every so often you see white (grey) ones. We know that the Cistercian monks at Furness Abbey traditionally rode white ponies. When Furness abbey fell victim to the dissolution of the monasteries in 1537, the ponies were released to the wild and merged with the wild Cumbrian Fell ponies. It is thought that this explains the grey fell ponies we see in the Lakes today. There are some on the fells above Aira Force.

Jenny, the Fell pony, photographed on the Ullswater Way,  Gowbarrow Fell near Aira Force, Ullswater
Jenny, the Fell pony, Gowbarrow Fell near Aira Force, Ullswater

Dappled grey Fell pony photographed at the Fell Pony Society show, Dalemain
Dappled grey Fell pony photographed at the Fell Pony Society show, Dalemain

Bay Fell pony photographed at the Fell Pony Society show at Dalemain
Bay Fell pony photographed at the Fell Pony Society show at Dalemain

White (grey) Fell pony on Heughscar above Ullswater with Little Mell Fell, Great Mell Fell and Blencathra in the background
White (grey) Fell pony on Heughscar

Fell ponies are increasingly valued for their role in conservation grazing on the fells. They help increase biodiversity, for example by controlling the spread of gorse and trampling the bracken to creating open ground where seeds can germinate. Fell ponies sometime sport a bristly moustache (see photo) which is thought to help them feel and differentiate different types of grass, especially when foraging in pour light.

Fell pony with moustache photographed on Carrock Fell
Fell pony with moustache photographed on Carrock Fell

White Fell pony scratching an itch on a bale of bracken, Heughscar above Ullswater
Scratching an itch on a bale of bracken
Fell ponies are used for conservation grazing. This one is eating gorse
Fell pony eating gorse

There is concern that fell ponies may lose their ability to survive year-round on the fells if future Stewardship Schemes result in them being removed from the fells for a number of months each winter. Foals born and raised on the fells are hardy enough to survive the Lake District winters and, like Herdwick sheep, they become hefted to their home area, learning the terrain from their mothers. There are worries that these traits are lost if the ponies are brought off the fells each winter, or have been bred away from the fells.

The Fell Pony has been a part of the Ullswater Valley’s history since Roman times. They have helped shape our landscape and been an integral part of our cultural heritage, invaluable in the past for transporting both agricultural produce and mined materials. Today their role has changed, but it is essential that this endangered native breed is preserved.

When you next see a fell pony, why not take a moment to remember their rich cultural heritage and the role they have played in shaping the landscape of the Cumbrian fells.

Fell Pony Heritage Trust

Rare Breeds Survival Trust

Quaker Tapestry Museum

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